Ko Dang is the pseudonym of the patriot Cho Man Sik who dedicated his life to the independence movement and education of his people. The 39 movements signify his times of imprisonment and his birthplace on the 39th parallel.
Eui Am is the pseudonym of the patriot Son Bong Hi who was the leader of the Korean Independence Movement on 1st March 1919. The 45 movements relate to his age when he changed the name of the religious sect known as Dong Hak (Oriental Culture) to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The pattern movement plan symbolizes his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
Choong Jang is the pseudonym of General Kim Duk Ryang of the Yi Dynasty who lived during the fifteenth century. The pattern ends with a left hand attack, intended to symbolize the general’s death in prison at the age of just 27. Choong Jang consists of 52 movement.